Comanchen

Comanchen Comanchen-Unterstämme

Die Comanche, auch Komantschen genannt, sind ein Volksstamm der Indianer Nordamerikas, deren Vorfahren zusammen mit den sprachlich und kulturell. Die Comanche, auch Komantschen genannt, sind ein Volksstamm der Indianer Nordamerikas, deren Vorfahren zusammen mit den sprachlich und kulturell verwandten Östlichen Shoshone einst am Oberlauf des Platte River im Osten Wyomings lebten, bevor sie. Die Comanche (dt. veraltet Komantschen) sind zwar der bekannteste Stamm, der in Texas lebte, sie waren aber die letzten, die sich dort angesiedelt haben. Die Comanchen lebten ursprünglich im Jahrhundert in den östlichen Rocky Mountains im heutigen Wyoming und gehörten zur Sprachfamilie der. Die Comanchen waren eine der mächtigsten Indianernationen im Südwesten der Vereinigten Staaten und dominierten die südlichen Plains.

comanchen

Comanchen. Aus Karl-May-Wiki. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Die Comanchen (engl. Comanche. Die Comanche, auch Komantschen genannt, sind ein Volksstamm der Indianer Nordamerikas, deren Vorfahren zusammen mit den sprachlich und kulturell. Die Comanche, auch Komantschen genannt, sind ein Volksstamm der Indianer Nordamerikas, deren Vorfahren zusammen mit den sprachlich und kulturell verwandten Östlichen Shoshone einst am Oberlauf des Platte River im Osten Wyomings lebten, bevor sie.

DIE HöHLE DER LöWEN VOX Sehen Sie, wie es ist, comanchen just about ganze folge exposure-wise sich sehr nah am Buch. comanchen

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ZAUBERHAFT Während der gesamten Zeit zwischen und dauerten die Indianerüberfälle an, obwohl bereits die continue reading Rangers gegründet worden waren. Die Vorfahren der Comanchen stammten aus der Ost kalifornischen Wüste. Der Wolf heulte und entfernte sich dann in Richtung Nordosten. Er setzte die Indianerpolitik seines Vorgängers Houston fort, mit der Ausnahme, dass er wie viele andere texanische Politiker, eine die wilden hГјhner film online kostenlos Grenze zwischen Texas und der Comancheria ablehnte.
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Retrieved 16 September When game was scarce, the men hunted wild mustangs, sometimes kids die wochenend their own ponies. The German Immigration Company was dissolved by Meusebach himself shortly after it had served its purpose. Retrieved June 4, Retrieved October 12,

Comanchen Video

Kapitel 15 (Teil 3) - Zwischen Apachen und Comanchen

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Als Sam Houston ihn darauf als Präsident wieder ablöste, lag dies nicht zuletzt an Lamars verfehlter Indianerpolitik. Die Verteidiger waren jedoch wach und konnten mit ihren weitreichenden Büffelgewehren den Angriff abwehren. In den er Jahren besonders im Mexikanisch-Amerikanischen Krieg waren diese Plünderungen für den Norden Mexikos so gravierend, dass ganze Regionen aufgegeben werden mussten.

Comanchen Comanchen Indianer

Hätte einer von ihnen versucht den Stamm zu einigen und eine Comanchen — Nation oder eine andere Regierungsform zu errichten, so captain fantastic german streamcloud er check this out der Entfernung, die zwischen https://lessthanthree.se/online-stream-filme/der-marsianer-film.php einzelnen Stämmen lag, gescheitert. Austin gründete die erste Rangertruppe, indem er comanchen Männer dafür bezahlte, die Indianer zu bekämpfen und die Grenzsiedlungen zu beschützen. Auch ihre Freunde die Kiowa waren bis ihre Feinde, erst dann schlossen beide Stämme einen dauerhaften Frieden. Einen Dämpfer erhielt er aber, als die in Texas stationierte 2. Impressum - Datenschutz. Die Kriegsfarben der Comanchen sind rot und blau Deadly dust. Bestürzt musste er feststellen, dass sich in der Umgebung continue reading Indianerdörfer befanden, comanchen. Die Comanchen waren einst Shoshoni, hatten sich aber von der Hauptgruppe gelöst und waren von den Rocky Mountains in den Süden gewandert. Ein Comanche durfte sich soviele Frauen nehmen wie und jГјrgen zlatko ernähren konnte. Lesen Sie jetzt unser aktuelles Magazin kostenlos: Deutschland und Amazon prime. Nur drei Stämme der Comanchen hatten die Verträge akzeptiert, die anderen Comanchen — Stämme zogen als Nomaden weiterhin durch die Plains und unternahmen Überfälle. So wurden https://lessthanthree.se/online-filme-stream/barry-seal-only-in-america-stream.php Hufe beispielsweise gekocht, um Leim daraus just click for source machen. Der Wolf heulte und entfernte sich comanchen in Richtung Nordosten.

Comanchen Video

00355 Der Stamm der Comanchen bestand aus mehreren Untergruppen: siehe unten. Tipidorf der Comanche Etwa Stammesangehörige wurden im Jahre ​. Apachen & Comanchen: Die Apache kamen ursprünglich aus dem Norden. Etwa zu der Zeit, als die Spanier Amerika eroberten, erreichten. Comanchen. Aus Karl-May-Wiki. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Die Comanchen (engl. Comanche. Beispiele: [1] „Auch die lexikalischen Komposita im Comanche (Nominativ/​Akkusativ), zahlreicher australischer Sprachen (Ergativ/Absolutiv) und im Lakhota . Comanche-Indianer Die Comanchen sind ein Volksstamm der uto – aztekischen Sprachfamilie vom Zweig der Shoshone, der vor Entdeckung Amerikas auf der. comanchen

Community in Texas, United States. Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. National Association of Counties.

Archived from the original on Retrieved United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, Retrieved June 4, Census website".

Federal Aviation Administration. Effective 30 June Austin Monthly Magazine. County seat : Comanche.

Comanche De Leon. Comyn Duster Energy Proctor Sidney. State of Texas. Austin capital. Seal of Texas. See: List of counties in Texas. Girls were usually named after one of their father's relatives, but the name was selected by the mother.

As children grew up they also acquired nicknames at different points in their lives, to express some aspect of their lives. The Comanche looked on their children as their most precious gift.

Children were rarely punished. Occasionally, old people donned sheets and frightened disobedient boys and girls. Children were also told about Big Maneater Owl Pia Mupitsi , who lived in a cave on the south side of the Wichita Mountains and ate bad children at night.

Children learned from example, by observing and listening to their parents and others in the band. As soon as she was old enough to walk, a girl followed her mother about the camp and played at the daily tasks of cooking and making clothing.

She was also very close to her mother's sisters, who were called not aunt but pia , meaning mother. She was given a little deerskin doll, which she took with her everywhere.

She learned to make all the clothing for the doll. A boy identified not only with his father but with his father's family, as well as with the bravest warriors in the band.

He learned to ride a horse before he could walk. By the time he was four or five, he was expected to be able to skillfully handle a horse.

When he was five or six, he was given a small bow and arrows. Often, a boy was taught to ride and shoot by his grandfather, since his father and other warriors were on raids and hunts.

His grandfather also taught him about his own boyhood and the history and legends of the Comanche. As the boy grew older, he joined the other boys to hunt birds.

He eventually ranged farther from camp looking for better game to kill. Encouraged to be skillful hunters, boys learned the signs of the prairie as they learned to patiently and quietly stalk game.

They became more self-reliant, yet, by playing together as a group, also formed the strong bonds and cooperative spirit that they would need when they hunted and raided.

Boys were highly respected because they would become warriors and might die young in battle.

As he approached manhood, a boy went on his first buffalo hunt. If he made a kill, his father honored him with a feast. Only after he had proven himself on a buffalo hunt was a young man allowed to go to war.

When he was ready to become a warrior, at about age fifteen or sixteen, a young man first "made his medicine" by going on a vision quest a rite of passage.

Following this quest, his father gave the young man a good horse to ride into battle and another mount for the trail. If he had proved himself as a warrior, a Give Away Dance might be held in his honor.

As drummers faced east, the honored boy and other young men danced. His parents, along with his other relatives and the people in the band, threw presents at his feet — especially blankets and horses symbolized by sticks.

Anyone might snatch one of the gifts for themselves, although those with many possessions refrained; they did not want to appear greedy.

People often gave away all their belongings during these dances, providing for others in the band, but leaving themselves with nothing.

Girls learned to gather healthy berries, nuts, and roots. They carried water and collected wood, and when about twelve years old learned to cook meals, make tipis, sew clothing, prepare hides, and perform other tasks essential to becoming a wife and mother.

They were then considered ready to be married. During the 19th century, the traditional Comanche burial custom was to wrap the deceased's body in a blanket and place it on a horse, behind a rider, who would then ride in search of an appropriate burial place, such as a secure cave.

After entombment, the rider covered the body with stones and returned to camp, where the mourners burned all the deceased's possessions.

The primary mourner slashed his arms to express his grief. The Quahada band followed this custom longer than other bands and buried their relatives in the Wichita Mountains.

Christian missionaries persuaded Comanche people to bury their dead in coffins in graveyards, [48] which is the practice today. When they lived with the Shoshone, the Comanche mainly used dog-drawn travois for transportation.

Later, they acquired horses from other tribes, such as the Pueblo, and from the Spaniards. Since horses are faster, easier to control and able to carry more, this helped with their hunting and warfare and made moving camp easier.

Larger dwellings were made due to the ability to pull and carry more belongings. Being herbivores, horses were also easier to feed than dogs, since meat was a valuable resource.

A Comanche man's wealth was measured by the size of his horse herd. Horses were prime targets to steal during raids; often raids were conducted specifically to capture horses.

Often horse herds numbering in the hundreds were stolen by Comanche during raids against other Indian nations, Spanish, Mexicans, and later from the ranches of Texans.

Horses were used for warfare with the Comanche being considered to be among the finest light cavalry and mounted warriors in history.

The Comanche sheathed their tipis with a covering made of buffalo hides sewn together. To prepare the buffalo hides, women first spread them on the ground, then scraped away the fat and flesh with blades made from bones or antlers, and left them in the sun.

When the hides were dry, they scraped off the thick hair, and then soaked them in water. After several days, they vigorously rubbed the hides in a mixture of animal fat, brains, and liver to soften the hides.

The hides were made even more supple by further rinsing and working back and forth over a rawhide thong.

Finally, they were smoked over a fire, which gave the hides a light tan color. To finish the tipi covering, women laid the tanned hides side by side and stitched them together.

As many as 22 hides could be used, but 14 was the average. When finished, the hide covering was tied to a pole and raised, wrapped around the cone-shaped frame, and pinned together with pencil-sized wooden skewers.

Two wing-shaped flaps at the top of the tipi were turned back to make an opening, which could be adjusted to keep out the moisture and held pockets of insulating air.

With a fire pit in the center of the earthen floor, the tipis stayed warm in the winter. In the summer, the bottom edges of the tipis could be rolled up to let cool breezes in.

Cooking was done outside during the hot weather. Tipis were very practical homes for itinerant people. Working together, women could quickly set them up or take them down.

An entire Comanche band could be packed and chasing a buffalo herd within about 20 minutes. The Comanche women were the ones who did the most work with food processing and preparation.

The Comanche were initially hunter-gatherers. When they lived in the Rocky Mountains , during their migration to the Great Plains, both men and women shared the responsibility of gathering and providing food.

When the Comanche reached the plains, hunting came to predominate. Hunting was considered a male activity and was a principal source of prestige.

For meat, the Comanche hunted buffalo , elk , black bear , pronghorn , and deer. When game was scarce, the men hunted wild mustangs, sometimes eating their own ponies.

In later years the Comanche raided Texas ranches and stole longhorn cattle. They did not eat fish or fowl, unless starving, when they would eat virtually any creature they could catch, including armadillos , skunks , rats , lizards , frogs , and grasshoppers.

Buffalo meat and other game was prepared and cooked by the women. The women also gathered wild fruits, seeds, nuts, berries, roots, and tubers — including plums , grapes , juniper berries, persimmons , mulberries , acorns , pecans , wild onions , radishes , and the fruit of the prickly pear cactus.

The Comanche also acquired maize , dried pumpkin , and tobacco through trade and raids. Most meats were roasted over a fire or boiled.

To boil fresh or dried meat and vegetables, women dug a pit in the ground, which they lined with animal skins or buffalo stomach and filled with water to make a kind of cooking pot.

They placed heated stones in the water until it boiled and had cooked their stew. After they came into contact with the Spanish, the Comanche traded for copper pots and iron kettles, which made cooking easier.

Women used berries and nuts, as well as honey and tallow , to flavor buffalo meat. They especially liked to make a sweet mush of buffalo marrow mixed with crushed mesquite beans.

The Comanches sometimes ate raw meat, especially raw liver flavored with gall. They also drank the milk from the slashed udders of buffalo, deer, and elk.

They also enjoyed buffalo tripe, or stomachs. Comanche people generally had a light meal in the morning and a large evening meal.

During the day they ate whenever they were hungry or when it was convenient. Like other Plains Indians , the Comanche were very hospitable people.

They prepared meals whenever a visitor arrived in camp, which led to outsiders' belief that the Comanches ate at all hours of the day or night.

Before calling a public event, the chief took a morsel of food, held it to the sky, and then buried it as a peace offering to the Great Spirit.

Many families offered thanks as they sat down to eat their meals in their tipis. Comanche children ate pemmican , but this was primarily a tasty, high-energy food reserved for war parties.

Carried in a parfleche pouch, pemmican was eaten only when the men did not have time to hunt. Similarly, in camp, people ate pemmican only when other food was scarce.

Traders ate pemmican sliced and dipped in honey, which they called Indian bread. Comanche clothing was simple and easy to wear.

Men wore a leather belt with a breechcloth — a long piece of buckskin that was brought up between the legs and looped over and under the belt at the front and back, and loose-fitting deerskin leggings.

Moccasins had soles made from thick, tough buffalo hide with soft deerskin uppers. The Comanche men wore nothing on the upper body except in the winter, when they wore warm, heavy robes made from buffalo hides or occasionally, bear , wolf , or coyote skins with knee-length buffalo-hide boots.

Young boys usually went without clothes except in cold weather. When they reached the age of eight or nine, they began to wear the clothing of a Comanche adult.

In the 19th century, men used woven cloth to replace the buckskin breechcloths, and the men began wearing loose-fitting buckskin shirts.

The women decorated their shirts, leggings and moccasins with fringes made of deer-skin, animal fur, and human hair.

They also decorated their shirts and leggings with patterns and shapes formed with beads and scraps of material. Comanche women wore long deerskin dresses.

The dresses had a flared skirt and wide, long sleeves, and were trimmed with buckskin fringes along the sleeves and hem. Beads and pieces of metal were attached in geometric patterns.

Comanche women wore buckskin moccasins with buffalo soles. In the winter they, too, wore warm buffalo robes and tall, fur-lined buffalo-hide boots.

Unlike the boys, young girls did not go without clothes. As soon as they were able to walk, they were dressed in breechcloths.

By the age of twelve or thirteen, they adopted the clothes of Comanche women. Comanche people took pride in their hair, which was worn long and rarely cut.

They arranged their hair with porcupine quill brushes, greased it and parted it in the center from the forehead to the back of the neck.

They painted the scalp along the parting with yellow, red, or white clay or other colors. Er zijn tijden geweest dat de Comanche schijnbaar met iedereen problemen hadden.

De Comanche zijn eigenlijk Shoshone die kort na paarden kregen en zich vervolgens afsplitsten van de Shoshone.

Rond verschenen de eerste groepen op de prairie in Zuidoost- Colorado. Zij voerden oorlog met de hen omringende volken, zoals de al eerder genoemde Lipan Apache, en met de Tonkawa, Niukonska Osage , Tayovayas Wichita en de Chahiksichahiks Pawnee.

Rond sloten zij onder invloed van handelaren uit Santa Fe een alliantie met de Kgoy-goo Kiowa. Samen vormden zij een zuidelijk machtsblok, wat de Fransen van verdere westelijke penetratie weerhield en de Spanjaarden en later de Mexicanen blokkeerden in hun noordwaartse bedoelingen.

Behalve roof- en plundertochten tegen de hen omringende inheemse volken, voerden de Comanche en de Kiowa verre strooptochten uit tot diep in Mexico.

Deze jaarlijkse strooptochten voerden altijd langs dezelfde wegen en lieten diepe sporen achter in het landschap, de zogenaamde "Comanche Traces".

The population density was The 1, housing units averaged The racial makeup of the city was Hispanics or Latinos of any race were Of the 1, households, About The average household size was 2.

In the city, the population was distributed as The median age was 36 years. For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The Comanche County-City Airport is located two nautical miles 2.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Community in Texas, United States. Geographic Names Information System.

United States Geological Survey. National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on Retrieved United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, Retrieved June 4, Census website".

Federal Aviation Administration. Effective 30 June Austin Monthly Magazine. County seat : Comanche.

Comanche De Leon. Comyn Duster Energy Proctor Sidney. State of Texas. One or two stakes were driven into the ground near the expectant mother's bedding for her to grip during the pain of labor.

After the birth, the midwives hung the umbilical cord on a hackberry tree. The people believed that if the umbilical cord was not disturbed before it rotted, the baby would live a long and prosperous life.

The newborn was swaddled and remained with its mother in the tipi for a few days. The baby was placed in a cradleboard , and the mother went back to work.

She could easily carry the cradleboard on her back, or prop it against a tree where the baby could watch her while she collected seeds or roots.

Cradleboards consisted of a flat board to which a basket was attached. The latter was made from rawhide straps, or a leather sheath that laced up the front.

With soft, dry moss as a diaper, the young one was safely tucked into the leather pocket. During cold weather, the baby was wrapped in blankets, and then placed in the cradleboard.

The baby remained in the cradleboard for about ten months; then it was allowed to crawl around. Both girls and boys were welcomed into the band, but boys were favored.

If the baby was a boy, one of the midwives informed the father or grandfather, "It's your close friend". Families might paint a flap on the tipi to tell the rest of the tribe that they had been strengthened with another warrior.

Sometimes a man named his child, but mostly the father asked a medicine man or another man of distinction to do so. He did this in the hope of his child living a long and productive life.

During the public naming ceremony, the medicine man lit his pipe and offered smoke to the heavens, earth, and each of the four directions.

He prayed that the child would remain happy and healthy. He then lifted the child to symbolize its growing up and announced the child's name four times.

He held the child a little higher each time he said the name. It was believed that the child's name foretold its future; even a weak or sick child could grow up to be a great warrior, hunter, and raider if given a name suggesting courage and strength.

Girls were usually named after one of their father's relatives, but the name was selected by the mother. As children grew up they also acquired nicknames at different points in their lives, to express some aspect of their lives.

The Comanche looked on their children as their most precious gift. Children were rarely punished.

Occasionally, old people donned sheets and frightened disobedient boys and girls. Children were also told about Big Maneater Owl Pia Mupitsi , who lived in a cave on the south side of the Wichita Mountains and ate bad children at night.

Children learned from example, by observing and listening to their parents and others in the band. As soon as she was old enough to walk, a girl followed her mother about the camp and played at the daily tasks of cooking and making clothing.

She was also very close to her mother's sisters, who were called not aunt but pia , meaning mother. She was given a little deerskin doll, which she took with her everywhere.

She learned to make all the clothing for the doll. A boy identified not only with his father but with his father's family, as well as with the bravest warriors in the band.

He learned to ride a horse before he could walk. By the time he was four or five, he was expected to be able to skillfully handle a horse.

When he was five or six, he was given a small bow and arrows. Often, a boy was taught to ride and shoot by his grandfather, since his father and other warriors were on raids and hunts.

His grandfather also taught him about his own boyhood and the history and legends of the Comanche. As the boy grew older, he joined the other boys to hunt birds.

He eventually ranged farther from camp looking for better game to kill. Encouraged to be skillful hunters, boys learned the signs of the prairie as they learned to patiently and quietly stalk game.

They became more self-reliant, yet, by playing together as a group, also formed the strong bonds and cooperative spirit that they would need when they hunted and raided.

Boys were highly respected because they would become warriors and might die young in battle. As he approached manhood, a boy went on his first buffalo hunt.

If he made a kill, his father honored him with a feast. Only after he had proven himself on a buffalo hunt was a young man allowed to go to war.

When he was ready to become a warrior, at about age fifteen or sixteen, a young man first "made his medicine" by going on a vision quest a rite of passage.

Following this quest, his father gave the young man a good horse to ride into battle and another mount for the trail.

If he had proved himself as a warrior, a Give Away Dance might be held in his honor. As drummers faced east, the honored boy and other young men danced.

His parents, along with his other relatives and the people in the band, threw presents at his feet — especially blankets and horses symbolized by sticks.

Anyone might snatch one of the gifts for themselves, although those with many possessions refrained; they did not want to appear greedy.

People often gave away all their belongings during these dances, providing for others in the band, but leaving themselves with nothing. Girls learned to gather healthy berries, nuts, and roots.

They carried water and collected wood, and when about twelve years old learned to cook meals, make tipis, sew clothing, prepare hides, and perform other tasks essential to becoming a wife and mother.

They were then considered ready to be married. During the 19th century, the traditional Comanche burial custom was to wrap the deceased's body in a blanket and place it on a horse, behind a rider, who would then ride in search of an appropriate burial place, such as a secure cave.

After entombment, the rider covered the body with stones and returned to camp, where the mourners burned all the deceased's possessions.

The primary mourner slashed his arms to express his grief. The Quahada band followed this custom longer than other bands and buried their relatives in the Wichita Mountains.

Christian missionaries persuaded Comanche people to bury their dead in coffins in graveyards, [48] which is the practice today.

When they lived with the Shoshone, the Comanche mainly used dog-drawn travois for transportation.

Later, they acquired horses from other tribes, such as the Pueblo, and from the Spaniards. Since horses are faster, easier to control and able to carry more, this helped with their hunting and warfare and made moving camp easier.

Larger dwellings were made due to the ability to pull and carry more belongings. Being herbivores, horses were also easier to feed than dogs, since meat was a valuable resource.

A Comanche man's wealth was measured by the size of his horse herd. Horses were prime targets to steal during raids; often raids were conducted specifically to capture horses.

Often horse herds numbering in the hundreds were stolen by Comanche during raids against other Indian nations, Spanish, Mexicans, and later from the ranches of Texans.

Horses were used for warfare with the Comanche being considered to be among the finest light cavalry and mounted warriors in history.

The Comanche sheathed their tipis with a covering made of buffalo hides sewn together. To prepare the buffalo hides, women first spread them on the ground, then scraped away the fat and flesh with blades made from bones or antlers, and left them in the sun.

When the hides were dry, they scraped off the thick hair, and then soaked them in water. After several days, they vigorously rubbed the hides in a mixture of animal fat, brains, and liver to soften the hides.

The hides were made even more supple by further rinsing and working back and forth over a rawhide thong. Finally, they were smoked over a fire, which gave the hides a light tan color.

To finish the tipi covering, women laid the tanned hides side by side and stitched them together. As many as 22 hides could be used, but 14 was the average.

When finished, the hide covering was tied to a pole and raised, wrapped around the cone-shaped frame, and pinned together with pencil-sized wooden skewers.

Two wing-shaped flaps at the top of the tipi were turned back to make an opening, which could be adjusted to keep out the moisture and held pockets of insulating air.

With a fire pit in the center of the earthen floor, the tipis stayed warm in the winter. In the summer, the bottom edges of the tipis could be rolled up to let cool breezes in.

Cooking was done outside during the hot weather. Tipis were very practical homes for itinerant people. Working together, women could quickly set them up or take them down.

An entire Comanche band could be packed and chasing a buffalo herd within about 20 minutes. The Comanche women were the ones who did the most work with food processing and preparation.

The Comanche were initially hunter-gatherers. When they lived in the Rocky Mountains , during their migration to the Great Plains, both men and women shared the responsibility of gathering and providing food.

When the Comanche reached the plains, hunting came to predominate. Hunting was considered a male activity and was a principal source of prestige.

For meat, the Comanche hunted buffalo , elk , black bear , pronghorn , and deer. When game was scarce, the men hunted wild mustangs, sometimes eating their own ponies.

In later years the Comanche raided Texas ranches and stole longhorn cattle. They did not eat fish or fowl, unless starving, when they would eat virtually any creature they could catch, including armadillos , skunks , rats , lizards , frogs , and grasshoppers.

Buffalo meat and other game was prepared and cooked by the women. The women also gathered wild fruits, seeds, nuts, berries, roots, and tubers — including plums , grapes , juniper berries, persimmons , mulberries , acorns , pecans , wild onions , radishes , and the fruit of the prickly pear cactus.

The Comanche also acquired maize , dried pumpkin , and tobacco through trade and raids. Most meats were roasted over a fire or boiled.

To boil fresh or dried meat and vegetables, women dug a pit in the ground, which they lined with animal skins or buffalo stomach and filled with water to make a kind of cooking pot.

They placed heated stones in the water until it boiled and had cooked their stew. After they came into contact with the Spanish, the Comanche traded for copper pots and iron kettles, which made cooking easier.

Women used berries and nuts, as well as honey and tallow , to flavor buffalo meat. They especially liked to make a sweet mush of buffalo marrow mixed with crushed mesquite beans.

The Comanches sometimes ate raw meat, especially raw liver flavored with gall. They also drank the milk from the slashed udders of buffalo, deer, and elk.

They also enjoyed buffalo tripe, or stomachs. Comanche people generally had a light meal in the morning and a large evening meal.

During the day they ate whenever they were hungry or when it was convenient. Like other Plains Indians , the Comanche were very hospitable people.

They prepared meals whenever a visitor arrived in camp, which led to outsiders' belief that the Comanches ate at all hours of the day or night.

Before calling a public event, the chief took a morsel of food, held it to the sky, and then buried it as a peace offering to the Great Spirit.

Many families offered thanks as they sat down to eat their meals in their tipis. Comanche children ate pemmican , but this was primarily a tasty, high-energy food reserved for war parties.

Carried in a parfleche pouch, pemmican was eaten only when the men did not have time to hunt. Similarly, in camp, people ate pemmican only when other food was scarce.

Traders ate pemmican sliced and dipped in honey, which they called Indian bread. Comanche clothing was simple and easy to wear.

Men wore a leather belt with a breechcloth — a long piece of buckskin that was brought up between the legs and looped over and under the belt at the front and back, and loose-fitting deerskin leggings.

Moccasins had soles made from thick, tough buffalo hide with soft deerskin uppers. The Comanche men wore nothing on the upper body except in the winter, when they wore warm, heavy robes made from buffalo hides or occasionally, bear , wolf , or coyote skins with knee-length buffalo-hide boots.

Young boys usually went without clothes except in cold weather. When they reached the age of eight or nine, they began to wear the clothing of a Comanche adult.

In the 19th century, men used woven cloth to replace the buckskin breechcloths, and the men began wearing loose-fitting buckskin shirts.

The women decorated their shirts, leggings and moccasins with fringes made of deer-skin, animal fur, and human hair. They also decorated their shirts and leggings with patterns and shapes formed with beads and scraps of material.

Comanche women wore long deerskin dresses. The dresses had a flared skirt and wide, long sleeves, and were trimmed with buckskin fringes along the sleeves and hem.

Beads and pieces of metal were attached in geometric patterns. Comanche women wore buckskin moccasins with buffalo soles. In the winter they, too, wore warm buffalo robes and tall, fur-lined buffalo-hide boots.

Unlike the boys, young girls did not go without clothes. As soon as they were able to walk, they were dressed in breechcloths.

By the age of twelve or thirteen, they adopted the clothes of Comanche women. Comanche people took pride in their hair, which was worn long and rarely cut.

They arranged their hair with porcupine quill brushes, greased it and parted it in the center from the forehead to the back of the neck.

They painted the scalp along the parting with yellow, red, or white clay or other colors. They wore their hair in two long braids tied with leather thongs or colored cloth, and sometimes wrapped with beaver fur.

They also braided a strand of hair from the top of their head. This slender braid, called a scalp lock, was decorated with colored scraps of cloth and beads, and a single feather.

Comanche men rarely wore anything on their heads. Only after they moved onto a reservation late in the 19th century did Comanche men begin to wear the typical Plains headdress.

If the winter was severely cold, they might wear a brimless, woolly buffalo hide hat. When they went to war, some warriors wore a headdress made from a buffalo's scalp.

Warriors cut away most of the hide and flesh from a buffalo head, leaving only a portion of the woolly hair and the horns.

This type of woolly, horned buffalo hat was worn only by the Comanche. Comanche women did not let their hair grow as long as the men did.

Young women might wear their hair long and braided, but women parted their hair in the middle and kept it short.

Like the men, they painted their scalp along the parting with bright paint. Comanche men usually had pierced ears with hanging earrings made from pieces of shell or loops of brass or silver wire.

A female relative would pierce the outer edge of the ear with six or eight holes. The men also tattooed their face, arms, and chest with geometric designs, and painted their face and body.

Traditionally they used paints made from berry juice and the colored clays of the Comancheria. Later, traders supplied them with vermilion red pigment and bright grease paints.

Comanche men also wore bands of leather and strips of metal on their arms. Except for black, which was the color for war, there was no standard color or pattern for face and body painting: it was a matter of individual preference.

For example, one Comanche might paint one side of his face white and the other side red; another might paint one side of his body green and the other side with green and black stripes.

One Comanche might always paint himself in a particular way, while another might change the colors and designs when so inclined. Some designs had special meaning to the individual, and special colors and designs might have been revealed in a dream.

Comanche women might also tattoo their face or arms. They were fond of painting their bodies and were free to paint themselves however they pleased.

A popular pattern among the women was to paint the insides of their ears a bright red and paint great orange and red circles on their cheeks.

They usually painted red and yellow around their lips. Because of their frequent traveling, Comanche Indians had to make sure that their household goods and other possessions were unbreakable.

They did not use pottery that could easily be broken on long journeys. Basketry, weaving, wood carving, and metal working were also unknown among the Comanches.

Instead, they depended upon the buffalo for most of their tools, household goods, and weapons. They made nearly different articles from the horns, hide, and bones of the buffalo.

Removing the lining of the inner stomach, women made the paunch into a water bag. The lining was stretched over four sticks and then filled with water to make a pot for cooking soups and stews.

With wood scarce on the plains, women relied on buffalo chips dried dung to fuel the fires that cooked meals and warmed the people through long winters.

Stiff rawhide was fashioned into saddles, stirrups and cinches, knife cases, buckets, and moccasin soles.

Rawhide was also made into rattles and drums. Strips of rawhide were twisted into sturdy ropes.

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