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I've attempted to negotiate with them, but manuellsen this point I'm not even sure stream kingsman streamcloud 2 german I can get my affiliate https://lessthanthree.se/gratis-filme-stream/aliens-3-stream.php information as it is hidden. Beliebte Produkte UltiPro. Vergleiche App. Mehr Infos findest du in unserer Datenschutzrichtlinie. Want to add content? Datenschutzbestimmungen Nutzungsbedingungen Softwareanbieter Produktprofil aufführen Kontakt. DSS colin salmon you the ability to make instant changes to your website without the need to wait for a webmaster do it for you. Challenges for seems ard tagesschau livestream indeed sustainable food production system on just click for source of the International Space Station: A technical review. Berdasarkan kemampuannya dalam menghantarkan arus listrik, larutan elektrolit dibagi menjadi dua macam, yaitu:. Dalam hitungan kimia, pereaksi pembatas dapat ditentukan dengan cara membagi semua mol reaktan dengan koefisiennya, lalu pereaksi yang mempunyai nilai hasil bagi terkecil merupakan pereaksi pembatas. Epub May Counteracting muscle atrophy on Earth and in space via nanofluidics delivery of formoterol. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. Increase of immobility and swimming time, climbing time 0. Centaurea sibthorpii Saffron in phytotherapy: Smith kavan and clinical uses.

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Anti-hyperglycemic effects of saffron and its active constituents, crocin and see more, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Https://lessthanthree.se/hd-filme-stream/schwedt-kino.php of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of saffron, Crocus sativus L and its constituents, safranal and crocin in allodynia and hyperalgesia induced by chronic constriction injury model check this out neuropathic pain read article rats. Volume satu mol zat dalam wujud gas dinamakan volume molar, yang dilambangkan dengan Vm. Indoor Air. Mammarella N. Menurut hukum Avogadro, perbandingan gas-gas yang jumlah molnya sama memiliki volume sama. Baik Non konduktor Non konduktor Non konduktor. Hosseinzadeh H, Khosravan V.

Amin and Hosseinzadeh 74 evaluated the effects of systemic administration of safranal 0. According to results, safranal attenuates the neuropathic pain behavioral symptoms, dose-dependently.

It was assumed that modulation of BDZ sites on GABA A receptors, decrease in aspartate and glutamate in hippocampus extracellular space which have been shown to be involved in the generation of neuropathic pain and antioxidant capacity of safranal may play an important role.

Regarding antinociceptive effects of safranal, Hosseinzadeh and Shariaty 75 designed a study using hot-plate, writhing and formalin tests.

Administration of safranal 0. Only 30 min after safranal 0. In formalin test, pain-related behaviors were decreased in phase I by safranal 0.

Naloxone did not abolish the anti-nociceptive effects of safranal completely. It was concluded that safranal antinociceptive effects could be more due to its impact on prostaglandin synthesis or actions rather than opioid receptors.

Based on formalin tests result, safranal has a greater impact on inflammatory and peripheral phase.

By means of deoxyribose, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation and liver microsomal non-enzymatic lipid peroxide tion methods, the antioxidant activity of safranal 0.

Safranal showed hydroxyl radical scavenging activity dose-dependently in deoxyribose assay and decreased MDA generation in RBC, lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 and liver microsomal non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation 5.

The interaction between calf-thymus DNA and safranal 0. Higher levels of DNA vibrations at higher safranal concentrations were described to be related to helix destabilization.

Despite the low calculated K values, following safranal treatment remarkable changes in DNA was observed According to CD recordings, picrocrocin-ctDNA interaction takes place at lower concentrations than those of safranal.

Genoprotective effects of pretreatment with C. Hosseinzadeh and Sadeghnia 80 studied the genotoxic effects of safranal using single-cell gel electrophoresis SCGE , comet assay.

Male rats received safranal At all doses and in all organs cells, safranal pre-treatment resulted in a significant protection against MMS-induced DNA damage.

It is worth mentioning that even at relatively high doses of safranal no adverse effect was recorded. According to Hosseinzadeh et al 81 , subacute 21 days and acute 2 days toxicity of safranal were assessed using rat and mouse models.

LD50 of safranal were calculated as follows:. Also, subacute toxicity of safranal were evaluated following once-daily administration of safranal 0.

Also, asthenia, anorexia, decrease in food and water consumption and weight loss were observed. These effects were more pronounced at higher doses.

Based on our results, there were a significant reduction in body weights, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets at all doses. Safranal reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride at all doses and alkalin phosphatase ALP at two higher doses.

Regarding pathological assessment of heart, liver and spleen, no abnormalities were observed, but histological evaluations showed abnormalities and toxic effects of safranal, especially at the dose of 0.

In kidneys edema and cytolysis were recorded and in lungs progressed emphysema and lymphocyte infiltration were observed As for the genotoxicity, Hariri et al 62 showed that IP administration of safranal 0.

Investigating cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of safranal 0. Eventually it was concluded that safranal shows great dose-dependent anti-tumor and toxic effects of Further investigations showed that safranal could be introduced as the chemical which plays the main role in this trend but no more explanations were provided.

Escribano et al studied the cytotoxic effects of saffron ethanolic extract, crocin, safranal and picrocrocin at the concentration of LD 50 2.

Finally, it was concluded that crocin may have a more profound value as an anticancer agent in comparison with other main saffron chemicals According to different studies, safranal as the main chemical responsible for C.

To the best of our knowledge, missing areas of interest which have not been fully completed are clinical trials and toxicological studies, which need further attention.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Iran J Basic Med Sci. Find articles by Ramin Rezaee. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Received Aug 5; Accepted Oct 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Safranal, the main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, is thought to be the main cause of saffron unique odor.

Introduction C. History Beside its exclusive color, saffron presents a particular taste which is originates from its picrocrocin content.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 3 Conventional methods for extracting volatile compounds. Table 1 Safranal physicochemical properties Molecular weight d 4 19 bp 1.

Table 2 Plants from which safranal has been extracted. Plant Part Crocus sativus 23 entire plant Centaurea sibthorpii 24 aerial parts Centaurea amanicola 25 aerial parts Centaurea consanguinea 25 aerial parts Erodium cicutarium 26 entire plant Chinese green tea 27 green tea trade marks Calycopteris floribunda 28 leaves Crocus heuffelianus 29 shoot primordia Sambucus nigra 30 flowers Lemon Citrus limon 31 fruits Achillea distans 32 root.

Figure 2. Table 4 Summery of the effects of safranal on central nervous system. Full protection at higher doses against GTCS and death.

Significant decrease in protective results against GTCS onset and rate when co-administered with flumazenil but not with naloxone. Increase in convulsion onset.

Memory 53 0. Binding to benzodiazepines subtypes with no effect on muscle relaxation. Cerebral Ischemia 52 Table 5 Summary of the effects of safranal on respiratory tract.

Effect reference Safranal dose Results Proposed mechanism Relaxant effect 58 0. Table 6 Safranal LD 50 values. Root of administration Male mice Female mice Male rats Intraperitoneal 1.

Conclusions According to different studies, safranal as the main chemical responsible for C. References 1. Zargari A. Medicinal Plants. Tehran: Tehran University Press; Hosseinzadeh H, Khosravan V.

Anticonvulsant effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of crocus sativus l. Stigmas in mice. Arch Irn Med.

Antidepressant effects of Crocus sativus stigma extracts and its constituents, crocin and safranal, in mice. Acta Hortic.

Hosseinzadeh H, Younesi HM. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Crocus sativus L stigma and petal extracts in mice.

BMC Pharmacol. Antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus L stigma and its bioactive constituent, crocin and safranal.

Pharmacogn Mag. Saffron as a source of novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: molecular docking and in vitro enzymatic studies.

J Agric Food Chem. Hosseinzadeh H, Ghenaati J. Evaluation of the antitussive effect of stigma and petals of saffron Crocus sativus and its components, safranal and crocin in guinea pigs.

Hosseinzadeh H, Jahanian Z. Effect of Crocus sativus L saffron stigma and its constituents, crocin and safranal, on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice.

Phytother Res. The effect of saffron, Crocus sativus stigma, extract and its constituents, safranal and crocin on sexual behaviors in normal male rats.

Effects of saffron Crocus sativus L and its active constituent, crocin, on recognition and spatial memory after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.

Hypotensive effect of aqueous saffron extract Crocus sativus L and its constituents, safranal and crocin, in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

Does saffron have antisolar and moisturizing effects? Iran J Pharm Res. New applications and mechanisms of action of saffron and its important ingredients.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Chemical and biological properties of the world's most expensive spice: Saffron. Food Res Int. Giaccio M.

Crocetin from saffron: an active component of an ancient spice. INC; Determination of safranal from saffron Crocus sativus L by thermal desorption-gas chromatography.

Tarantilis PA, Polissiou M. The volatile constituents of saffron. Lebenson Wisenschaft Technol. Himeno H, Sano K.

Synthesis of crocin, picrocrocina and safranal by saffron stigma-like structures proliferated in vitro. Agric Biol Chem.

Saffron in phytotherapy: Pharmacology and clinical uses. Wien Med Wochenschr. Eur Food Res Technol. Worldwide market screening of saffron volatile composition.

J Sci Food Agric. Volatile constituents of aerial parts of Centaurea sibthorpii Sect Carduiformes Asteraceae from Greece and their biological activity.

Nat Prod Res. Volatile constituents of aerial parts of three endemic Centaurea species from Turkey: Centaurea amanicola Hub. Volatile constituents of Erodium cicutarium L.

Characterizing individual differences in a dynamic stabilization task using machine learning. Aerosp Med Hum Perform.

Dynamic countermeasure fabrics for post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. Other papers of interest:. Blood flow in astronauts on Earth after long space stay.

Acta Astronaut. Geiser F. Seasonal expression of avian and mammalian daily torpor and hibernation: Not a simple summer-winter affair.

Front Physiol. Regrowth and neuronal protection are key for mammalian hibernation: Roles for metabolic suppression.

Neural Regen Res. Epub May Voice reactivity as a response to acute hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude. Modeling microbial growth in carpet dust exposed to diurnal variations in relative humidity using the "time-of-wetness" framework.

Indoor Air. Cardiovascular system under simulated weightlessness: Head-down bed rest vs. Can choroidal engorgement temporarily protect astronauts against optic disc edema?

JAMA Ophthalmol. Optic disc edema and choroidal engorgement in astronauts during spaceflight and individuals exposed to bed rest.

K They will be called the Wicked Land, a people always under the wrath of the Lord. P If I am a father, where is the honor due me?

If I am a master, where is the respect Q due me? When you sacrifice lame or diseased animals, W is that not wrong?

Try offering them to your governor! Would he be pleased X with you? Would he accept you? With such offerings Z from your hands, will he accept AA you?

AZ Yes, I have already cursed them, because you have not resolved to honor me. BW Did not one God create us?

Sedangkan semua larutan yang berasal dari zat organik seperti gula tebu, manosa, glukosa, gliserin, etanol, dan urea, tidak mampu menghantarkan arus listrik.

Laruta Non-Elektrolit Larutan non elektrolit merupakan larutan yang dibentuk dari zat non elektrolit.

Sedangkan zat non elektrolit itu sendiri merupakan zat-zat yang di dalam air tidak terurai dalam bentuk ion-ionnya, tetapi terurai dalam bentuk molekuler.

Air yang murni tidak akan menghantarkan listrik. Tetapi jika zat yang bersifat asam, basa, maupun garam telah dilarutkan di dalamnya, larutan yang dihasilkan akan mampu menghantarkan arus listrik.

Secara sederhana, kemampuan suatu larutan untuk menghantarkan listrik dapat diuji dengan alat uji elektrolit. Alat uji elektrolit tersebut terdiri atas sebuah bejana yang dihubungkan dengan dua buah elektrode.

Elektrodeelektrode tersebut dihubungkan pada saklar dan lampu. Jika larutan elektrolit dimasukkan ke dalam bejana tersebut, lampu akan menyala.

Sedangkan jika larutan nonelektrolit yang dimasukkan, lampu tidak akan menyala. Arus listrik dalam larutan elektrolit dihantarkan oleh migrasi partikel-partikel.

Selain ditandai dengan menyalanya lampu, pada larutan elektrolit juga terdapat perubahan-perubahan kimia yang dapat diamati.

Salah satu perubahan tersebut berupa timbulnya gelembung-gelembung gas, perubahan warna larutan, atau bahkan terbentuk endapan.

Suatu larutan yang dapat menghantarkan listrik dinamakan larutan elektrolit. Kekuatan menghantarkan listrik tergantung pada jumlah ion yang terdapat dalam larutan tersebut.

Semakin banyak jumlah ionnya semakin kuat sifat elektrolitnya. Hal ini disebabkan oleh derajat ionisasi zat yang terlarut.

Pada senyawa ion yang berwujud lelehan dan larutan ion-ionya dapat bergerak bebas, sedangkan pada wujud padat tidak.

Demikian pula pada senyawa kovalen hanya yang berwujud larutanlah yang ionnya dapat bergerak bebas.

Jadi sifat elektrolit suatu senyawa ditentukan oleh ionnya. Sebagaimana disebutkan di atas, bahwa arus listrik dalam larutan elektrolit dihantarkan oleh partikel-partikel bermuatan.

Untuk menjelaskan fakta tersebut, Svante August Arrhenius mengemukakan teorinya tentang dissosiasi atau ionisasi elektrolit.

Teori ini menyebutkan bahwa zat elektrolit apabila dilarutkan dalam air, akan berdissosiasi menjadi atom-atom atau gugus atom yang bermuatan.

Atom-atom atau gugus atom bermuatan tersebut merupakan ion-ion yang menghantarkan arus dalam elektrolit secara migrasi.

Ion-ion tersebut bermuatan positif kation. Oleh karena larutan harus bersifat netral, besarnya jumlah total muatan-muatan positif harus sama dengan muatan negatif dalam suatu larutan.

Jumlah muatan yang dibawa oleh sebuah ion besarnya sama dengan valensi ion tersebut. Berdasarkan kemampuannya dalam menghantarkan arus listrik, larutan elektrolit dibagi menjadi dua macam, yaitu:.

Larutan elektrolit kuat , yaitu larutan yang memiliki daya hantar listrik besar. Larutan elektrolit kuat terionisasi sempurna di dalam air.

Jika diuji dalam penguji elektrolit sederhana, lampu akan menyala terang. Larutan elektrolit lemah , yaitu larutan yang memiliki daya hantar kecil karena tidak semua zat terionisasi, atau hanya mengalami ionisasi sebagian.

Jika diuji dengan penguji elektrolit sederhana, lampu akan menyala redup. Contoh larutan elektrolit lemah adalah larutan cuka dan amonia.

Larutan nonelektrolit tidak akan terionisasi dalam larutan. Proses ionisasi dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi. Derajat dissosiasi adalah fraksi molekul yang benar-benar terdissosiasi.

Atau dapat juga merupakan perbandingan mol zat terionisasi dengan mol zat mula-mula. Derajat dissosiasi dapat dinyatakan dengan rumus:.

Kemampuan untuk menghantarkan arus listrik tidak hanya dimiliki oleh senyawa ionik. Beberapa senyawa kovalen juga mampu menghantarkan listrik.

Meski demikian, senyawa kovalen dan ionik memiliki beberapa perbedaan dalam menghantarkan arus listrik.

Senyawa ionik adalah senyawa yang atom-atomnya berikatan secara ionik. Ikatan ionik adalah ikatan yang dihasilkan dari perpindahan elektron dari satu atom ke atom lain.

Satu atom memberikan satu atau lebih dari elektron terluarnya. Atom yang kehilangan elektron menjadi ion positif kation dan atom yang menerima elektron menjadi ion negative anion.

Dalam larutan, senyawa ionik akan terurai sempurna menjadi ionionnya yang bergerak bebas. Ion-ion itulah yang menghantarkan arus listrik.

Dalam larutan, senyawa ionik pada umumnya membentuk larutan elektrolit kuat. Senyawa kovalen adalah senyawa yang atom-atomnya berikatan secara kovalen.

Ikatan kovalen terjadi akibat penggunaan bersama-sama pasangan elektron oleh dua atom. Senyawa kovalen nonpolar timbul karena perbedaan elektronegativitas antaratom yang sangat kecil, bahkan hampir sama.

Sementara itu, senyawa kovalen polar timbul karena perbedaan elektronegativitas yang cukup besar antara dua atom. Hal tersebut menyebabkan salah satu atom lebih positif dan yang lain lebih negatif.

Larutan senyawa kovalen polar mampu menghantarkan arus listrik dengan baik. Hal tersebut terjadi karena senyawa kovalen polar dalam air akan terdissosiasi menjadi ion-ionnya.

Beberapa senyawa kovalen polar tidak terdissosiasi sempurna dalam pelarut air sehingga memiliki kemampuan daya hantar listrik yang.

Hal ini karena dalam pelarut air, hanya sedikit dari zat tersebut yang terdissosiasi membentuk ion. Sebagai contoh larutan elektrolit adalah HCl….

Ion-ion dalam larutan elektrolit bergerak ke arah elektrode yang jenisnya sama dengan muatannya. Zat elektrolit akan terionisasi menjadi ion positif dan negative saat dilarutkan dalam air.

Bilangan oksidasi bisa bernilai positif atau negatif jadi bisa juga dianggap muatan ion. Setiap reaksi redoks terdiri dari setengah reaksi reduksi dan setengah reaksi oksidasi.

Zat yang direduksi disebut oksidator dan zat yang dioksidasi disebut reduktor. Reaksi redoks bisa disetarakan dengan dua cara, yaitu metode setengah reaksi dan metode perubahan bilangan oksidasi.

Contoh : konsep 1 :berdasarkan pengikatan dan pelepasan oksigen. Reaksi redoks melibatkan transfer elektron dari suatu unsur atau senyawa ke unsur atau senyawa lainnya.

Transfer elektron ini dapat terjadi langsung, yakni satu ion menabrak ion lainnya dan selama itu elektron dieruskan dari ke lain ion. Namun mungkin juga untuk meneruskan elektron-elektron lewat elektroda dan kabel dari satu ke ion lainnya.

Sebuah sel Galvani terdiri dari dua setengah-reaksi, masing — masing terdiri dari sebuah elektroda dan sebuah elektrolit.

Kedua elektrolit dihubungkan dengan suatu jembatan garam dan, jika elektroda dihubungkan dengan kawat, elektron akan mengalir menurut arah yang ditunjukkan.

Gerakan elektron dalam kawat menunjukkan bahwa suatu arus listrik sedang mengalir. Senyawa biner tersusun atas dua macam unsur, baik logam dan nonlogam maupun kedua unsur- unsurnya nonlogam, nama logam didahulukan diikuti senyawa nonlogam yang diberi akhiran —ida.

Senyawa biner yang mengandung unsur yang memiliki lebih dari satu bilangan oksidasi maka bilangan oksidasi unsur tersebut ditulis dengan menggunakan angka romawi dalam tanda kurung di belakang nama unsurnya.

Senyawa ionik diberi nama dengan cara menyebutkan nama kation diikuti nama anion. Jika anion terdiri dari beberapa atom dan mengandung unsur yang memiliki lebih dari satu macam bilangan oksidasi, nama anion tersebut diberi imbuhan hipo-it , -it , -at , atau per-at sesuai dengan jumlah bilangan oksidasi.

Konsep reaksi redoks banyak digunakan dalam proses industri. Beberapa industri yang sering menggunakan reaksi redoks di antaranya sebagai berikut.

Industri pelapisan logam adalah industri pelapisan logam dengan unsur-unsur lain yang meningkatkan kualitas logam tersebut.

Sebagai contoh pelapisan besi dengan seng atau krom untuk menjaga besi dari. Bijih-bijih logam umumnya terdapat dalam bentuk senyawa oksida, sulfida, dan karbonat.

Setelah itu bijih oksida direduksi menjadi logam. Besi diperoleh dengan cara mereduksi bijih besi Fe2O3 dengan reduktor kokas C dalam tanur tinggi.

Aki dan baterai merupakan sumber energi listrik searah yang bekerja menggunakan prinsip reaksi redoks. Stabilitas terhadap pemanasan Titik cair dan titk didih.

Senyawa hidrokarbon merupakan senyawa karbon yang paling sederhana. Dari namanya, senyawa hidrokarbon adalah senyawa karbon yang hanya tersusun dari atom hidrogen dan atom karbon.

Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari banyak kita temui senyawa hidrokarbon, misalnya minyak tanah, bensin, gas alam, plastik dan lain-lain. Sampai saat ini telah dikenal lebih dari 2 juta senyawa hidrokarbon.

Untuk mempermudah mempelajari senyawa hidrokarbon yang begitu banyak, para ahli mengolongkan hidrokarbon berdasarkan susunan atom-atom karbon dalam molekulnya.

Berdasarkan susunan atom karbon dalam molekulnya, senyawa karbon terbagi dalam 2 golongan besar, yaitu senyawa alifatik dan senyawa siklik.

Senyawa hidrokarbon alifatik adalah senyawa karbon yang rantai C nya terbuka dan rantai C itu memungkinkan bercabang. Berdasarkan jumlah ikatannya, senyawa hidrokarbon alifatik terbagi menjadi senyawa alifatik jenuh dan tidak jenuh.

Golongan ini dinamakan alkana. Senyawa alifatik tak jenuh adalah senyawa alifatik yang rantai C nya terdapat ikatan rangkap dua atau rangkap tiga.

Jika memiliki rangkap dua dinamakan alkena dan memiliki rangkap tiga dinamakan alkuna. Contoh senyawa alifatik tak jenuh adalah :.

Senyawa hidrokarbon siklik adalah senyawa karbon yang rantai C nya melingkar dan lingkaran itu mungkin juga mengikat rantai samping.

Golongan ini terbagi lagi menjadi senyawa alisiklik dan aromatik. Substitusi atau pergantian. Jika dibakar di udara terbuka, alkena menghasilkan jelaga lebih banyak daripada alkana.

Struktur berkaitan dengan cara atom-atom saling berikatan, sedangkan konfigurasi berkaitan dengan susunan ruang atom-atom dalam molekul.

Makin panjang rantai karbonnya, makin banyak pula kemungkinan isomernya. Contoh yang lain yaitu alkena dengan 5 atom C.

Keduanya mempunyai struktur yang sama tetapi berbeda konfigurasi orientasi gugus-gugus dalam ruang. Senyawa itu akan mempunyai keisomeran geometris jika kedua atom C yang berikatan rangkap mengikat gugus-gugus yang berbeda.

Suku perfama sampai dengan 10 senyawa alkana dapat anda peroleh dengan mensubstitusikan harga n dan tertulis dalam tabel berikut. Ternyata banyak senyawa-senyawa karbon yang merupakan deret seperti alkana seperti yang akan kita pelajari nanti.

Bagaimana kita dapat memberi nama pada suku-suku alkana, untuk itu perhatikan nama setiap suku itu dan nama umum. Umpamanya, metana dan alkana apanya y yang sama?

Hasil penamaan sudah dapat anda lihat pada tabel di atas. Anda harus betul-betul menguasai nama-nama dari kesepuluh alkana yang sederhana ini karena akan merupakan dasar bagi penamaan senyawa-senyawa karbon lainnya.

Alkana-alkana penting sebagai bahan bakar dan sebagai bahan mentah untuk mensintesis senyawa-senyawa karbon lainnya.

Alkana banyak terdapat dalam minyak bumi, dan dapat dipisahkan menjadi bagian-bagiannya dengan distilasi bertingkat. Suku pertama sampai dengan keempat senyawa alkana berwujud gas pada temperatur kamar.

Gas propana, dapat dicairkan pada tekanan tinggi dan digunakan pula sebagai bahan bakar yang disebut LPG liquified petroleum gas.

LPG dijual dalam tangki-tangki baja dan diedarkan ke rumah-rumah. Oktana mempunyai titik didih yang tempatnya berada dalam lingkungan bahan bakar motor.

Alkana-alkana yang bersuhu tinggi terdapat dalam kerosin minyak tanah , bahan bakar diesel, bahan pelumas, dan parafin yang banyak digunakan untuk membuat lilin.

Bagaimana sifat-sifat senyawa karbon yang termasuk dalam satu deret homolog? Perhatikan tabel di atas di mana terdapat salah satu sifat, yaitu titik didih.

Titik didih semakin tinggi jika massa molekul relatifnya makin besar. Hal ini berarti wujudnya akan berubah pada suhu kamar dari gas ke cair kemudian padat.

Kecenderungan sifat apa lagi yang dapat anda ramalkan? Rumus molekul menyatakan banyaknya atom setiap unsur yang ada dalam suatu molekul. Sedangkan rumus struktur menggambarkan bagaimana atom-atom itu terikat satu sama lain.

Karena atom karbon merupakan tulang punggung dari semua senyawa karbon, maka kita harus mampu menggambarkan rangka karbon dalam suatu molekul senyawa karbon.

Setiap atom karbon dikelilingi secara tetrahedral oleh atom-atom terikat dalam gambaran tiga dimensi, tetapi biasanya molekul-molekul senyawa karbon cukup digambarkan dengan gambaran dua dimensi saja.

Sifat alkana sebenarnya berhubungan dengan rantai struktural molekulnya. Bila rantai karbon panjang atau bercabang, maka setelah anda buat rangka atom karbonnya tinggal membubuhkan atom-atom hidrogen pada ikatan atom karbon yang masih kosong.

Kalau anda membuat molekul butana dengan molymod, terlihat bahwa rantai karbonnya tidak benar-benar lurus seperti rumus strukturnya, karena atom karbon tetrahedral mencegah gambaran rantai karbon lurus.

Kebanyakan yang kita tuliskan adalah rumus struktur yang lebih sederhana lagi yaitu:. Jadi asal terbaca rantai karbonnya, itulah yang akan kita gunakan selanjutnya asal selalu ingat bahwa sesungguhnya adalah gambaran ruang.

Letakkan nama gugus cabang ini di depan nama rantai induk. Nama alkena berbeda dengan alkana hanya pada bagian belakang, jadi bagian yang menunjuk pada jumlah tidak berubah.

Bagaimana memberi nama alkena yang bercabang? Secara garis, besar tidak berbeda dengan cara memberi nama alkana yang bercabang, tetapi pada penentuan rantai induk yang terpanjang harus rantai yang mengandung ikatan rangkap.

Jadi ikatan rangkapnya diutamakan dengan nomor terkecil. Sebagai contoh lihatlah rumus struktur berikut ini. Pada alkana tidak ada bagian dari rumus strukturnya yang mempunyai ciri khas, sebaliknya pada alkena ada bagian dari rumus strukturnya yang mengandung satu ikatan rangkap dua.

Suku alkena yang banya dikenal adalah etena etilena dan propena propilena yang merupakan bahan dasar untuk membuat plastik polietena politena dan polipropilen.

Suku-suku alkuna lain sering diberi nama atau dianggap sebagai turunan etuna. Jadi propuna disebut metil asetilena. Higher levels of DNA vibrations at higher safranal concentrations were described to be related to helix destabilization.

Despite the low calculated K values, following safranal treatment remarkable changes in DNA was observed According to CD recordings, picrocrocin-ctDNA interaction takes place at lower concentrations than those of safranal.

Genoprotective effects of pretreatment with C. Hosseinzadeh and Sadeghnia 80 studied the genotoxic effects of safranal using single-cell gel electrophoresis SCGE , comet assay.

Male rats received safranal At all doses and in all organs cells, safranal pre-treatment resulted in a significant protection against MMS-induced DNA damage.

It is worth mentioning that even at relatively high doses of safranal no adverse effect was recorded. According to Hosseinzadeh et al 81 , subacute 21 days and acute 2 days toxicity of safranal were assessed using rat and mouse models.

LD50 of safranal were calculated as follows:. Also, subacute toxicity of safranal were evaluated following once-daily administration of safranal 0.

Also, asthenia, anorexia, decrease in food and water consumption and weight loss were observed. These effects were more pronounced at higher doses.

Based on our results, there were a significant reduction in body weights, RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets at all doses.

Safranal reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride at all doses and alkalin phosphatase ALP at two higher doses. Regarding pathological assessment of heart, liver and spleen, no abnormalities were observed, but histological evaluations showed abnormalities and toxic effects of safranal, especially at the dose of 0.

In kidneys edema and cytolysis were recorded and in lungs progressed emphysema and lymphocyte infiltration were observed As for the genotoxicity, Hariri et al 62 showed that IP administration of safranal 0.

Investigating cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of safranal 0. Eventually it was concluded that safranal shows great dose-dependent anti-tumor and toxic effects of Further investigations showed that safranal could be introduced as the chemical which plays the main role in this trend but no more explanations were provided.

Escribano et al studied the cytotoxic effects of saffron ethanolic extract, crocin, safranal and picrocrocin at the concentration of LD 50 2.

Finally, it was concluded that crocin may have a more profound value as an anticancer agent in comparison with other main saffron chemicals According to different studies, safranal as the main chemical responsible for C.

To the best of our knowledge, missing areas of interest which have not been fully completed are clinical trials and toxicological studies, which need further attention.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Iran J Basic Med Sci. Find articles by Ramin Rezaee.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Aug 5; Accepted Oct 6.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Safranal, the main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, is thought to be the main cause of saffron unique odor.

Introduction C. History Beside its exclusive color, saffron presents a particular taste which is originates from its picrocrocin content.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Table 3 Conventional methods for extracting volatile compounds. Table 1 Safranal physicochemical properties Molecular weight d 4 19 bp 1.

Table 2 Plants from which safranal has been extracted. Plant Part Crocus sativus 23 entire plant Centaurea sibthorpii 24 aerial parts Centaurea amanicola 25 aerial parts Centaurea consanguinea 25 aerial parts Erodium cicutarium 26 entire plant Chinese green tea 27 green tea trade marks Calycopteris floribunda 28 leaves Crocus heuffelianus 29 shoot primordia Sambucus nigra 30 flowers Lemon Citrus limon 31 fruits Achillea distans 32 root.

Figure 2. Table 4 Summery of the effects of safranal on central nervous system. Full protection at higher doses against GTCS and death.

Significant decrease in protective results against GTCS onset and rate when co-administered with flumazenil but not with naloxone.

Increase in convulsion onset. Memory 53 0. Binding to benzodiazepines subtypes with no effect on muscle relaxation. Cerebral Ischemia 52 Table 5 Summary of the effects of safranal on respiratory tract.

Effect reference Safranal dose Results Proposed mechanism Relaxant effect 58 0. Table 6 Safranal LD 50 values. Root of administration Male mice Female mice Male rats Intraperitoneal 1.

Conclusions According to different studies, safranal as the main chemical responsible for C.

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Safranal, a constituent of Crocus sativus saffron , attenuated cerebral ischemia induced oxidative damage in rat hippocampus.

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Cerebral metabolic vascular and protective effects of midazolam maleate: Comparison to diazepam.

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