[ˈvuːduː], auch Vodun, Voudou, Wudu oder Wodu, ist eine synkretistische Religion, die sich ursprünglich in Westafrika entwickelte und heute auch in kreolischen Gesellschaften des atlantischen Raums und vor allem in Haiti beheimatet ist. Voodoo, auch Vodun, Voudou, Wudu oder Wodu, ist eine synkretistische Religion, die sich ursprünglich in Westafrika entwickelte und heute auch in kreolischen Gesellschaften des atlantischen Raums und vor allem in Haiti beheimatet ist. Voodoo bezeichnet: Voodoo, eine Religion afrikanischen Ursprungs; 3dfx Voodoo Graphics, einen 3D-Grafikchipsatz; 3dfx Voodoo 2, einen 3D-Grafikchipsatz. Voodoo, Vodun oder Vodù heißt "Gott" oder "Geist". Das sind die unsichtbaren Mächte, die der Mensch sich nicht erklären kann. Um ein glückliches Leben. Bei Voodoo denken Mitteleuropäer an Puppen, in die mit Nadeln gestochen wird. In dem afrikanischen Land Benin aber ist Voodoo aber ein.
von Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für "voodoo-puppe". Überspringen und zu Haupt-Suchergebnisse gehen. Amazon Prime. GRATIS-Versand durch. Astralzombie ä Zombie astrale Ayida: göttliche Gemahlin von ä Damballah Ayizan: mythische erste Priesterin des Voodoo, oberste Ahnen-Loa und Patronin der. Voodoo, Vodun oder Vodù heißt "Gott" oder "Geist". Das sind die unsichtbaren Mächte, die der Mensch sich nicht erklären kann. Um ein glückliches Leben.
Vodoo VideoL'Impératrice ♗ VOODOO? (Live)
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We make. See our games. Open source knowledge base. Coaching and feedback. Data-driven tests for games. Critics, especially those from Christian backgrounds, have accused Vodou of promoting a fatalistic outlook that discourages practitioners from improving their society.
Practitioners are usually critical of maji , which refers to the use of supernatural powers for self-serving and malevolent ends.
Those devoted to the Gede spirits dress in a manner linking in with the Gede's associations with death.
This includes wearing black and purple clothing, funeral frock coats, black veils, top hats, and sunglasses. Mostly revolving around interactions with the lwa,  Vodou ceremonies make use of song, drumming, dance, prayer, possession, and animal sacrifice.
Vodou has a strong oral culture and its teachings are primarily disseminated through oral transmission. Vodou practitioners also believe that if someone ignores their loa it can result in sickness, the failure of crops, the death of relatives, and other misfortunes.
In Vodou, male priests are referred to as oungan , alternatively spelled houngan or hungan ,  while their female counterparts are referred to as manbo , alternatively spelled mambo.
Vodou teaches that the lwa call an individual to become an oungan or manbo. The role of the oungan is believed by practitioners to be modelled on the lwa Loco, who is understood as the chief of Legba's escorts.
Various oungan are homosexual. Oungan and manbo are generally powerful and well-respected members of Haitian society.
Vodou entails practitioners being encouraged to undertake stages of initiation into a state of mind called konesans conaissance or knowledge.
Houngans priest or Mambos priestess are usually people who were chosen by the dead ancestors and received the divination from the deities while he or she was possessed.
His or her tendency is to do good by helping and protecting others from spells, however they sometimes use their supernatural power to hurt or kill people.
They also conduct ceremonies that usually take place "amba peristil" under a Vodou temple. However, non-Houngan or non-Mambo as Vodouisants are not initiated , and are referred to as being "bossale"; it is not a requirement to be an initiate to serve one's spirits.
There are clergy in Haitian vodou whose responsibility it is to preserve the rituals and songs and maintain the relationship between the spirits and the community as a whole though some of this is the responsibility of the whole community as well.
They are entrusted with leading the service of all of the spirits of their lineage. Sometimes they are "called" to serve in a process called being reclaimed , which they may resist at first.
These for instance include a pool of water for Danbala, a black cross for Baron Samedi, and a pince iron bar sticking out of a brazier for Criminel.
One of the ounsi becomes the hungenikon or reine-chanterelle , the mistress of the choir. This individual is responsible for overseeing the liturgical singing and shaking the chacha rattle which is used to control the rhythm during ceremonies.
It may be that it exists in their locality or that their family are already members. The Vodou system is hierarchical and includes a series of initiations.
Lithographs of Roman Catholic saints often appear on Vodou altars. Cosentino encountered a shrine in Port au Prince where Baron Samedi was represented by a plastic statue of Santa Claus that had been given a black sombrero.
Various spaces other than the temple are used for Vodou ritual. Spaces for ritual also appear in the homes of many Vodouists.
The creation of sacred works plays an important role in Vodou. The asson is a sacred rattle used in summoning the lwa. Feeding the lwa is of great importance in Vodou.
A mange sec is an offering of grains, fruit, and vegetables that often precedes a simple ceremony. Maya Deren wrote that: "The intent and emphasis of sacrifice is not upon the death of the animal, it is upon the transfusion of its life to the loa; for the understanding is that flesh and blood are of the essence of life and vigor, and these will restore the divine energy of the god.
The nocturnal gatherings of Vodouists are often referred to as the dans "dance" , reflecting the prominent role that dancing has in such ceremonies.
The ritual often begins with a series of Roman Catholic prayers and hymns. The rites employed to call down the lwa vary depending on the nation in question.
The drum is perhaps the most sacred item in Vodou. This is seen as having a destabilising effect on the dancers and helping to facilitate their possession.
The drumming is typically accompanied by the singing of specific Vodou songs,  usually in Haitian Kreyol, albeit words from several African languages incorporated into it.
Spirit possession constitutes an important element of Haitian Vodou,  and is at the heart of many of its rituals.
The trance of possession is known as the crise de lwa. Once the lwa appears and possesses an individual, it is greeted by a burst of song and dance by the congregation.
Alternatively, the clothes are brought out and they are dressed in the peristil itself. The behaviour of the possessed is informed by the lwa possessing them as the chwal takes on the associated behaviour and expressions of that particular lwa.
Possession facilitates direct communication between the lwa and its followers;  through the chwal , the lwa communicates with their devotees, offering counsel, chastisement, blessings, warnings about the future, and healing.
Healing practices play an important role in Haitian Vodou. In Haiti, there are also "herb doctors" who offer herbal remedies for various ailments; they are considered separate from the oungan and manbo and have a more limited range in the problems that they deal with.
The curses of the bokor are believed to be countered by the actions of the oungan and manbo , who can revert the curse through an exorcism that incorporates invocations of protective lwa, massages, and baths.
Zombies are among the most sensationalised aspects of Haitian religion. After the individual was then assumed dead, the Bizango would administer another drug to revive them, giving the impression that they had returned from the dead.
Practitioners of Vodou revere death, and believe it is a great transition from one life to another, or to the afterlife.
Some Vodou families believe that a person's spirit leaves the body, but is trapped in water, over mountains, in grottoes—or anywhere else a voice may call out and echo—for one year and one day.
After then, a ceremonial celebration commemorates the deceased for being released into the world to live again.
In the words of Edwidge Danticat, author of "A Year and a Day"—an article about death in Haitian society published in the New Yorker—and a Vodou practitioner, "The year-and-a-day commemoration is seen, in families that believe in it and practice it, as a tremendous obligation, an honorable duty, in part because it assures a transcendental continuity of the kind that has kept us Haitians, no matter where we live, linked to our ancestors for generations.
Though other Haitian and West African families believe there is an afterlife in paradise in the realm of God. On the saints' days of the Roman Catholic calendar, Vodouists often hold "birthday parties" for the lwa associated with the saint whose day it is.
Pilgrimage is a part of Haitian religious culture. There, sacrifices are made and pilgrims immerse themselves in the trou mud pits.
The cultural area of the Fon , Ewe , and Yoruba peoples share a common metaphysical conception of a dual cosmological divine principle consisting of Nana Buluku , the God -Creator, and the voduns s or God-Actor s , daughters and sons of the Creator's twin children Mawu goddess of the moon and Lisa god of the sun.
The God-Creator is the cosmogonical principle and does not trifle with the mundane; the voduns s are the God-Actor s who actually govern earthly issues.
The pantheon of vodoun is quite large and complex. West African Vodun has its primary emphasis on ancestors, with each family of spirits having its own specialized priest and priestess, which are often hereditary.
In many African clans, deities might include Mami Wata , who are gods and goddesses of the waters; Legba , who in some clans is virile and young in contrast to the old man form he takes in Haiti and in many parts of Togo; Gu or Ogoun , ruling iron and smithcraft; Sakpata , who rules diseases; and many other spirits distinct in their own way to West Africa.
A significant portion of Haitian Vodou often overlooked by scholars until recently is the input from the Kongo. The entire northern area of Haiti is heavily influenced by Kongo practices.
In the south, Kongo influence is called Petwo Petro. Many loa a Kikongo term are of Kongo origin such as Basimba belonging to the Basimba people and the Lemba.
In addition, the Vodun religion distinct from Haitian Vodou already existed in the United States previously to Haitian immigration, having been brought by enslaved West Africans, specifically from the Ewe, Fon, Mina, Kabaye, and Nago groups.
Some of the more enduring forms survive in the Gullah Islands. European colonialism , followed by totalitarian regimes in West Africa, suppressed Vodun as well as other forms of the religion.
However, because the Vodun deities are born to each African clan-group, and its clergy is central to maintaining the moral, social, and political order and ancestral foundation of its villagers, it proved to be impossible to eradicate the religion.
The majority of the Africans who were brought as slaves to Haiti were from Western and Central Africa.
The survival of the belief systems in the New World is remarkable, although the traditions have changed with time and have even taken on some Catholic forms of worship.
Andrew Apter referred to this as a form of "collective appropriation" by enslaved Africans. Slave-owners were compelled to have their slaves baptised as Roman Catholics and then instructed in the religion;  the fact that the process of enslavement led to these Africans becoming Christian was a key way in which the slave-owners sought to morally legitimate their actions.
First, the Code Noir explicitly forbade the open practice of all African religions. Enslaved Africans spent their Sunday and holiday nights expressing themselves.
While bodily autonomy was strictly controlled during the day at night, the enslaved Africans wielded a degree of agency. They began to continue their religious practices but also used the time to cultivate community and reconnect the fragmented pieces of their various heritages.
These late night reprieves were a form of resistance against white domination and also created community cohesion between people from vastly different ethnic groups.
Vodou would be closely linked with the Haitian Revolution. Vodou was a powerful political and cultural force in Haiti. Vodou thus gave slaves a way both a symbolic and physical space of subversion against their French masters.
Political leaders such as Boukman Dutty , a slave who helped plan the revolt, also served as religious leader, connecting Vodou spirituality with political action.
The revolution would free the Haitian people from French colonial rule in and establish the first black people's republic in the history of the world and the second independent nation in the Americas.
Haitian nationalists have frequently drawn inspiration by imagining their ancestors' gathering of unity and courage.
This extremist view is not considered credible by mainstream Protestants, however conservatives such as Pat Robertson repeat the idea. Domingue as the First Black Empire; two years later, after his assassination, it became the Republic of Haiti.
This was the second nation to gain independence from European rule after the United States , and the only state to have arisen from the liberation of slaves.
No nation recognized the new state, which was instead met with isolation and boycotts. This exclusion from the global market led to major economic difficulties for the new state.
Many of the leaders of the revolt disassociated themselves from Vodou. They strived to be accepted as Frenchmen and good Catholics rather than as free Haitians.
Yet most practitioners of Vodou saw, and still see, no contradiction between Vodou and Catholicism, and also take part in Catholic masses. The Revolution broke up the large land-ownings and created a society of small subsistence farmers.
In the Bizoton Affair of , several Vodou practitioners were accused of ritually killing a child before eating it.
Historical sources suggest that they may have been tortured prior to confessing to the crime, at which they were executed.
The U. These groups held several rallies and demonstrations in Haiti. In March , a new Haitian constitution was introduced; Article 30 enshrined freedom of religion in the country.
Since the s, evangelical Protestantism has grown in Haiti, generating tensions with Vodouists;  these Protestants regard Vodou as Satanic ,  and unlike the Roman Catholic authorities have generally refused to compromise with Vodouists.
Haitian emigration began in as largely upper and middle-class Haitians fled Duvalier's government, and intensified after when many poorer Haitians also tried to escape abroad.
Because of the religious syncretism between Catholicism and Vodou, it is difficult to estimate the number of Vodouists in Haiti.
The majority of Haitians practice both Vodou and Roman Catholicism. Vodou does not focus on proselytizing.
Major ounfo exist in U. The elites preferred to view it as folklore in an attempt to render it relatively harmless as a curiosity that might continue to inspire music and dance.
Non-practitioners of Vodou have often depicted the religion in literature, theater, and film. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
It has been suggested that Haitian mythology be merged into this article. Discuss Proposed since November Syncretic religion practised chiefly in Haiti and among the Haitian diaspora.
See also: Haitian Vodou and sexual orientation. Crowded tabletops with tiny flickering lamps; stones sitting in oil baths; a crucifix; murky bottles of roots and herbs steeped in alcohol; shiny new bottles of rum, scotch, gin, perfume, and almond-sugar syrup.
On one side was an altar arranged in three steps and covered in gold and black contact paper. On the top step an open pack of filterless Pall Malls lay next to a cracked and dusty candle in the shape of a skull.
A walking stick with its head carved to depict a huge erect penis leaned against the wall beside it. On the opposite side of the room was a small cabinet, its top littered with vials of powders and herbs.
On the ceiling and walls of the room were baskets, bunches of leaves hung to dry, and smoke-darkened lithographs of the saints.
Traditional African religion portal. Black Religions in the New World. New York: Columbia University Press. Popular Culture Collection.
Caribbean Religious History: An Introduction. CLA Journal. Haitian Revolutionary Studies. Indiana University Press.
Haitian Vodou: Spirit, Myth and Reality. Apter, Andrew American Ethnologist. Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought.