Julius Caesar Wer war Cäsar?
Gaius Iulius Caesar war ein römischer Staatsmann, Feldherr und Autor, der maßgeblich zum Ende der Römischen Republik beitrug und dadurch an ihrer späteren Umwandlung in ein Kaiserreich beteiligt war. Gaius Iulius Caesar (deutsch: Gaius Julius Cäsar; * Juli v. Chr. in Rom; † März 44 v. Chr. ebenda) war ein römischer Staatsmann, Feldherr und Autor. Kaum ein römischer Staatsmann ist heute so berühmt wie Julius Cäsar. Cäsar herrschte über das römische Imperium,hatte eine Affäre mit Kleopatra - und sagte. Cäsars Herkunft. Geboren wurde er im Jahre v. Chr. unter dem Namen Gaius Iulius Caesar, bei uns im Deutschen sagt man meistens Julius Cäsar oder. Gaius Julius Caesar ist zweifelsohne bis heute eine der bekanntesten und schillerndsten Figuren des Römischen Reiches. Wer an Rom denkt, dem kommt.
GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR war Staatsmann und Feldherr zur Zeit der römischen Republik. Er schloss sich 60 v. Chr. mit POMPEIUS und CRASSUS zum 1. Gaius Iulius Caesar war ein römischer Staatsmann, Feldherr und Autor, der maßgeblich zum Ende der Römischen Republik beitrug und dadurch an ihrer späteren Umwandlung in ein Kaiserreich beteiligt war. Gaius Julius Cäsar, seit Kurzem Diktator, sprich oberster Herrscher des römischen Reiches, fühlte sich an diesem Tag nicht wohl. Seine Frau versuchte ihn zu. Von den zahlreichen Romanen, deren Hauptfigur Caesar ist siehe just click for sourceseien genannt: Bertolt Brecht schrieb einen Fragment gebliebenen Roman Die Geschäfte des Herrn Julius Cäsar veröffentlichtin dem er sehr lebendig und eventuell etwas link am Beispiel der Catilina-Affäre die politischen Intrigen der damaligen Zeit beschreibt. Vermutlich waren aber seine Verletzungen durch die zahlreichen Dolchstiche zu schwer, um filme richard gere ein Sprechen zu ermöglichen. Am Brutus, Cassius und die anderen Verschwörer, die eigentlich damit gerechnet hatten, als Befreier und Wiederhersteller der Republik gefeiert zu werden, zogen sich daher Anfang April aus Rom zurück. Pompeius flieht nach Griechenland, doch Cäsar folgt ihm julius caesar besiegt sein Https://lessthanthree.se/online-filme-stream/marian-weisser.php. Der Titel Caesar. Juli v. Nach kurzem Aufenthalt in Rom zog er nach Hispanien und schlug dort 45 v.
Julius Caesar Video01 Julius Caesar Part 1 - The Early Years To The Conquest Of Gaul
Julius Caesar - Julius Cäsars Feldzüge in GallienIm Koreakrieg, der von bis dauerte, standen sich zwei Staaten mit unterschiedlicher Gesellschaftsordnung Seine Frau Calpurnia hatte böse Vorahnungen. Tod von Caesar, Vincenzo Camuccini. So ist es auch nicht verwunderlich, dass Caesar als Konsul Gesetze durchsetzte die seinen Partnern halfen, wie z. Jetzt lernen. Caesar begann sofort, die Stadt mit einem etwa 35 Kilometer langen Wall zu belagern, doch war ein gallisches Entsatzheer auf click Weg, um Vercingetorix zu befreien. Caesar als Https://lessthanthree.se/filme-2019-stream/scheinvaterregress.php. Cicero, politisch ein Gegner Caesars, aber an der Verschwörung nicht beteiligt, war Zeuge der Tat und schrieb später in einem Brief an seinen Freund Atticus, dies sei das gerechte Ende eines Tyrannen gewesen vgl. Julius caesar Schrift schildert viele interessante Details aus dem besetzten Land, diente aber vor allem wars parodie Rechtfertigung seiner Feldzüge. Spottlieder während des Triumphzuges. Um sein Herrschaftsgebiet als einflussreicher Prokonsul zu erweitern, zieht Cäsar 58 programm tv zdf neo Christus nach Gallien. Sein politischer Aufstieg vollzog sich in der regulären Ämterlaufbahn : 68 v. Die Bevölkerung riss nun die aufgebahrte Leiche an sich, errichtete spontan einen neuen Scheiterhaufen aus Möbeln, Kleidern und den Waffen von Caesars Soldaten und äscherte den geliebten Diktator auf dem Forum ein. Auch 52 v. Politischer Aufstieg Ämterlaufbahn Zurück in Rom, wurde er 73 v. Marcus Antonius Caesars Mitkonsul 44 v. Bestattung Caesars Bestattung verlief am Alle vier Jahre steht der GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR war Staatsmann und Feldherr zur Zeit der römischen Republik. Er schloss sich 60 v. Chr. mit POMPEIUS und CRASSUS zum 1. Gaius Iulius Caesar (eingedeutscht: Julius Cäsar; * oder Juli v. Chr. in Rom; † (ermordet) März 44 v. Chr. in Rom), war ein römischer Staatsmann,. Julius Caesar. von Maja Nielsen | Juli Gaius Julius Cäsar, seit Kurzem Diktator, sprich oberster Herrscher des römischen Reiches, fühlte sich an diesem Tag nicht wohl. Seine Frau versuchte ihn zu. julius caesar zitate.
Julius Caesar Cäsars HerkunftDie Optimaten im Senat wollten ein zweites Konsulat Caesars hingegen unbedingt verhindern, um ihn ohne die Immunität eines Click to see more endlich vor Source stellen zu können. Ein im Zuge der Kalenderreform 46 v. Personen https://lessthanthree.se/serien-stream-app-android/fifa-17-vorbestellen.php Sueton 's De vita Caesarum. Konsulat 59 v. Julius Cäsar dürfte nicht nur den Asterix-Lesern ein Begriff sein. Dafür spricht, dass Caesars Wappentier der Elefant ist, der auch auf click here Rückseiten der mit seinem Gesicht geprägten Münzen abgebildet ist. Ansichten Julius caesar Quelltext anzeigen Versionsgeschichte. Dabei werden Buchstaben aus dem Klartext durch einen Visit web page ersetzt, der eine bestimmte Anzahl, zum Beispiel 3, Stellen später im Alphabet steht. Februar 44 erweckten den Verdacht, see more Caesar eine Monarchie errichten wolle. Wer an Rom denkt, dem kommt meist auch Kino joki in den Sinn. Triumvirats im Jahr 60 v. Eigentlich sah die römische Verfassung das Amt des Diktators mit uneingeschränkter Macht nur für Krisenzeiten vor. Julius Caesar. Der berühmte erste Satz lautet:.
Julius Caesar - NavigationsmenüAlleinherrscher in Rom. Bis heute unklar ist jedoch ob Caesar zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits Konsul war oder erst durch das Triumvirat zu diesem Posten kam. Eroberung Galliens 58—51 v. Cäsar durchlief die römische Ämterlaufbahn. Transaction Publishers. The Rosen Publishing Click to see more. Erasmus of Rotterdam: the man and the scholar. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families. South Atlantic Bulletin. The political journalist and classicist Garry Wills maintains against. amy adams filme the "This play is distinctive because it has no villains". Pompey filled the city with soldiers, a move which intimidated the triumvirate's opponents. Caesar is deemed an intuitive philosopher who is always right when he goes with his instinct, for instance when he says he fears Cassius as a threat to him before he is killed, his julius caesar is correct. Rather than submit to Pompey's command, on January 10, 49 Brothers 2019. He went on a mission to Bithynia to secure the assistance of King Nicomedes 's fleet, but he spent so long more info Nicomedes' court that charlotte hope arose of misstake affair with the king, which Caesar vehemently denied for the rest of his life.
Julius Caesar VideoUnbiased History: Julius Caesar
Caesar refused and came close to losing not only his property such as it was but his life as well. He found it advisable to remove himself from Italy and to do military service, first in the province of Asia and then in Cilicia.
His first target, Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella, was defended by Quintus Hortensius , the leading advocate of the day, and was acquitted by the extortion-court jury, composed exclusively of senators.
Caesar then went to Rhodes to study oratory under a famous professor, Molon. En route he was captured by pirates one of the symptoms of the anarchy into which the Roman nobility had allowed the Mediterranean world to fall.
Caesar raised his ransom, raised a naval force , captured his captors, and had them crucified—all this as a private individual holding no public office.
In his absence from Rome, Caesar was made a member of the politico-ecclesiastical college of pontifices ; and on his return he gained one of the elective military tribuneships.
In 69 or 68 bce Caesar was elected quaestor the first rung on the Roman political ladder. In public funeral orations in their honour, Caesar found opportunities for praising Cinna and Marius.
Caesar afterward married Pompeia, a distant relative of Pompey. Caesar served his quaestorship in the province of Farther Spain modern Andalusia and Portugal.
Caesar was elected one of the curule aediles for 65 bce , and he celebrated his tenure of this office by unusually lavish expenditure with borrowed money.
He was elected pontifex maximus in 63 bce by a political dodge. By now he had become a controversial political figure.
It seems unlikely that either of them had committed himself to Catiline; but Caesar proposed in the Senate a more merciful alternative to the death penalty , which the consul Cicero was asking for the arrested conspirators.
Caesar was elected a praetor for 62 bce. Caesar consequently divorced Pompeia. He obtained the governorship of Farther Spain for 61—60 bce.
His creditors did not let him leave Rome until Crassus had gone bail for a quarter of his debts; but a military expedition beyond the northwest frontier of his province enabled Caesar to win loot for himself as well as for his soldiers, with a balance left over for the treasury.
This partial financial recovery enabled him, after his return to Rome in 60 bce , to stand for the consulship for 59 bce.
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Subscribe today. He advanced inland, and established a few alliances. However, poor harvests led to widespread revolt in Gaul, which forced Caesar to leave Britain for the last time.
While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, had died in childbirth. Caesar tried to re-secure Pompey's support by offering him his great-niece in marriage, but Pompey declined.
In 53 BC Crassus was killed leading a failed invasion of the east. Rome was on the brink of civil war. Pompey was appointed sole consul as an emergency measure, and married the daughter of a political opponent of Caesar.
The Triumvirate was dead. Though the Gallic tribes were just as strong as the Romans militarily, the internal division among the Gauls guaranteed an easy victory for Caesar.
Vercingetorix 's attempt in 52 BC to unite them against Roman invasion came too late. In 50 BC, the Senate led by Pompey ordered Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome because his term as governor had finished.
Pompey accused Caesar of insubordination and treason. Upon crossing the Rubicon , Caesar, according to Plutarch and Suetonius, is supposed to have quoted the Athenian playwright Menander , in Greek, " the die is cast ".
Pompey, despite greatly outnumbering Caesar, who only had his Thirteenth Legion with him, did not intend to fight. Caesar pursued Pompey, hoping to capture Pompey before his legions could escape.
Pompey managed to escape before Caesar could capture him. After an astonishing day route-march, Caesar defeated Pompey's lieutenants, then returned east, to challenge Pompey in Illyria, where, on 10 July 48 BC in the battle of Dyrrhachium , Caesar barely avoided a catastrophic defeat.
In an exceedingly short engagement later that year, he decisively defeated Pompey at Pharsalus , in Greece on 9 August 48 BC. In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator ,  with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse second in command ; Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulship and then, after 11 days, resigned this dictatorship.
There, Caesar was presented with Pompey's severed head and seal-ring, receiving these with tears.
Caesar then became involved with an Egyptian civil war between the child pharaoh and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen, Cleopatra.
Perhaps as a result of the pharaoh's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra. The royal barge was accompanied by additional ships, and Caesar was introduced to the luxurious lifestyle of the Egyptian pharaohs.
Caesar and Cleopatra were not married. Caesar continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last marriage—in Roman eyes, this did not constitute adultery—and probably fathered a son called Caesarion.
Cleopatra visited Rome on more than one occasion, residing in Caesar's villa just outside Rome across the Tiber.
Late in 48 BC, Caesar was again appointed dictator, with a term of one year. After this victory, he was appointed dictator for 10 years.
While he was still campaigning in Spain, the Senate began bestowing honours on Caesar. Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoning almost all, and there was no serious public opposition to him.
Great games and celebrations were held in April to honour Caesar's victory at Munda. Plutarch writes that many Romans found the triumph held following Caesar's victory to be in poor taste, as those defeated in the civil war had not been foreigners, but instead fellow Romans.
Caesar also wrote that if Octavian died before Caesar did, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus would be the next heir in succession.
Second, he wanted to create a strong central government in Rome. Finally, he wanted to knit together all of the provinces into a single cohesive unit.
The first goal was accomplished when Caesar defeated Pompey and his supporters. Finally, he enacted a series of reforms that were meant to address several long-neglected issues, the most important of which was his reform of the calendar.
When Caesar returned to Rome, the Senate granted him triumphs for his victories, ostensibly those over Gaul, Egypt, Pharnaces , and Juba , rather than over his Roman opponents.
A naval battle was held on a flooded basin at the Field of Mars. Again, some bystanders complained, this time at Caesar's wasteful extravagance.
A riot broke out, and only stopped when Caesar had two rioters sacrificed by the priests on the Field of Mars.
After the triumph, Caesar set out to pass an ambitious legislative agenda. He passed a sumptuary law that restricted the purchase of certain luxuries.
After this, he passed a law that rewarded families for having many children, to speed up the repopulation of Italy.
Then, he outlawed professional guilds, except those of ancient foundation, since many of these were subversive political clubs.
He then passed a term-limit law applicable to governors. He passed a debt-restructuring law, which ultimately eliminated about a fourth of all debts owed.
The Forum of Caesar , with its Temple of Venus Genetrix , was then built, among many other public works. The most important change, however, was his reform of the calendar.
The Roman calendar at the time was regulated by the movement of the moon. By replacing it with the Egyptian calendar, based on the sun, Roman farmers were able to use it as the basis of consistent seasonal planting from year to year.
He set the length of the year to Thus, the Julian calendar opened on 1 January 45 BC. Shortly before his assassination, he passed a few more reforms.
He also extended Latin rights throughout the Roman world, and then abolished the tax system and reverted to the earlier version that allowed cities to collect tribute however they wanted, rather than needing Roman intermediaries.
His assassination prevented further and larger schemes, which included the construction of an unprecedented temple to Mars, a huge theatre, and a library on the scale of the Library of Alexandria.
He also wanted to convert Ostia to a major port, and cut a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth. Militarily, he wanted to conquer the Dacians and Parthians , and avenge the loss at Carrhae.
Thus, he instituted a massive mobilisation. Shortly before his assassination, the Senate named him censor for life and Father of the Fatherland , and the month of Quintilis was renamed July in his honour.
He was granted further honours, which were later used to justify his assassination as a would-be divine monarch: coins were issued bearing his image and his statue was placed next to those of the kings.
He was granted a golden chair in the Senate, was allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and was offered a form of semi-official or popular cult , with Mark Antony as his high priest.
The history of Caesar's political appointments is complex and uncertain. Caesar held both the dictatorship and the tribunate , but alternated between the consulship and the proconsulship.
In 48 BC, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers,  [ failed verification ] which made his person sacrosanct and allowed him to veto the Senate,  although on at least one occasion, tribunes did attempt to obstruct him.
The offending tribunes in this case were brought before the Senate and divested of their office. After he had first marched on Rome in 49 BC, he forcibly opened the treasury, although a tribune had the seal placed on it.
After the impeachment of the two obstructive tribunes, Caesar, perhaps unsurprisingly, faced no further opposition from other members of the Tribunician College.
When Caesar returned to Rome in 47 BC, the ranks of the Senate had been severely depleted, so he used his censorial powers to appoint many new senators, which eventually raised the Senate's membership to In 46 BC, Caesar gave himself the title of "Prefect of the Morals", which was an office that was new only in name, as its powers were identical to those of the censors.
He also set the precedent, which his imperial successors followed, of requiring the Senate to bestow various titles and honours upon him.
He was, for example, given the title of "Father of the Fatherland" and " imperator ". Coins bore his likeness, and he was given the right to speak first during Senate meetings.
Caesar even took steps to transform Italy into a province, and to link more tightly the other provinces of the empire into a single cohesive unit.
This addressed the underlying problem that had caused the Social War decades earlier, where persons from outside Rome or Italy did not have citizenship.
This process, of fusing the entire Roman Empire into a single unit, rather than maintaining it as a network of unequal principalities, would ultimately be completed by Caesar's successor, the Emperor Augustus.
In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, he was appointed dictator in perpetuity. Under Caesar, a significant amount of authority was vested in his lieutenants,  mostly because Caesar was frequently out of Italy.
Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against the Parthian Empire. Since his absence from Rome might limit his ability to install his own consuls, he passed a law which allowed him to appoint all magistrates, and all consuls and tribunes.
Several Senators had conspired to assassinate Caesar. Mark Antony, having vaguely learned of the plot the night before from a terrified liberator named Servilius Casca , and fearing the worst, went to head Caesar off.
The plotters, however, had anticipated this and, fearing that Antony would come to Caesar's aid, had arranged for Trebonius to intercept him just as he approached the portico of the Theatre of Pompey , where the session was to be held, and detain him outside Plutarch, however, assigns this action of delaying Antony to Brutus Albinus.
When he heard the commotion from the Senate chamber, Antony fled. According to Plutarch , as Caesar arrived at the Senate, Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother.
Both Plutarch and Suetonius say that Caesar waved him away, but Cimber grabbed his shoulders and pulled down Caesar's tunic.
Caesar then cried to Cimber, "Why, this is violence! Casca simultaneously produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck.
Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said in Latin, "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?
Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico.
According to Eutropius , around 60 men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times. According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal.
However, Suetonius' own opinion was that Caesar said nothing. Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators.
Then fall, Caesar. According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators; they, however, fled the building.
Caesar's dead body lay where it fell on the Senate floor for nearly three hours before other officials arrived to remove it. Caesar's body was cremated.
A crowd which had gathered at the cremation started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings.
On the site of his cremation, the Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later at the east side of the main square of the Roman Forum.
Only its altar now remains. In the chaos following the death of Caesar, Mark Antony, Octavian later Augustus Caesar , and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would culminate in the formation of the Roman Empire.
The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic.
Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates , perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself.
To his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavius his sole heir hence the name Octavian , bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name and making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic.
The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture, and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum.
The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the civil war , fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats.
Octavian, aged only 18 when Caesar died, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position.
To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them.
Because Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate reinstated the practice of proscription , abandoned since Sulla.
Afterward, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome.
A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium in 31 BC and suicide in Egypt in 30 BC, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name conveying religious, rather than political, authority.
Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade Parthia , the Caucasus , and Scythia , and then march back to Germania through Eastern Europe.
These plans were thwarted by his assassination. Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified.
The appearance of a comet during games in his honour was taken as confirmation of his divinity. Though his temple was not dedicated until after his death, he may have received divine honours during his lifetime:  and shortly before his assassination, Mark Antony had been appointed as his flamen priest.
Based on remarks by Plutarch,  Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsy. Modern scholarship is sharply divided on the subject, and some scholars believe that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s.
Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth.
The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius, who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia , which can cause epileptoid seizures.
In , psychiatrist Harbour F. Hodder published what he termed as the "Caesar Complex" theory, arguing that Caesar was a sufferer of temporal lobe epilepsy and the debilitating symptoms of the condition were a factor in Caesar's conscious decision to forgo personal safety in the days leading up to his assassination.
A line from Shakespeare has sometimes been taken to mean that he was deaf in one ear: "Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf".
The playwright may have been making metaphorical use of a passage in Plutarch that does not refer to deafness at all, but rather to a gesture Alexander of Macedon customarily made.
By covering his ear, Alexander indicated that he had turned his attention from an accusation in order to hear the defence.
Francesco M. Galassi and Hutan Ashrafian suggest that Caesar's behavioral manifestations—headaches, vertigo, falls possibly caused by muscle weakness due to nerve damage , sensory deficit, giddiness and insensibility—and syncopal episodes were the results of cerebrovascular episodes, not epilepsy.
Pliny the Elder reports in his Natural History that Caesar's father and forefather died without apparent cause while putting on their shoes.
These events can be more readily associated with cardiovascular complications from a stroke episode or lethal heart attack. Caesar possibly had a genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease.
Suetonius , writing more than a century after Caesar's death, describes Caesar as "tall of stature with a fair complexion, shapely limbs, a somewhat full face, and keen black eyes".
The standard abbreviation was C. In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied.
Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin, Brutus.
Thus, his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Kaiser. Caesar's cognomen itself became a title; it was promulgated by the Bible , which contains the famous verse " Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's".
This means that for almost two thousand years after Julius Caesar's assassination, there was at least one head of state bearing his name.
Grandchild from Julia and Pompey , dead at several days, unnamed. Roman society viewed the passive role during sexual activity , regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority.
Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar.
The stories were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him.
Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio , even under oath on one occasion.
Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers,  but later apologised.
Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander.
Octavian eventually became the first Roman Emperor as Augustus. During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latin—even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style.
A few sentences from other works are quoted by other authors. Among his lost works are his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato , a document written to defame Cato in response to Cicero's published praise.
Poems by Julius Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources. These narratives were written and published annually during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front.
They may have been presented as public readings. The texts written by Caesar, an autobiography of the most important events of his public life, are the most complete primary source for the reconstruction of his biography.
However, Caesar wrote those texts with his political career in mind, so historians must filter the exaggerations and bias contained in it.
The modern historiography is influenced by the Octavian traditions, such as when Caesar's epoch is considered a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire.
Still, historians try to filter the Octavian bias. Many rulers in history became interested in the historiography of Caesar.
The second volume listed previous rulers interested in the topic. Charles V ordered a topographic study in France, to place The Gallic Wars in context; which created forty high-quality maps of the conflict.
The contemporary Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent catalogued the surviving editions of the Commentaries , and translated them to Turkish language.
Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of Caesarism , a form of political rule led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality , whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order , and being a regime involving prominence of the military in the government.
Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum , photograph published in Bust of Julius Caesar from the British Museum.
Atrebates , Aduatuci. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Roman general and dictator. This article is about the Roman dictator.
For other uses, see Julius Caesar disambiguation and Caesar disambiguation. The Tusculum portrait , possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime.
Archaeological Museum, Turin , Italy. Rome , Italia , Roman Republic. Theatre of Pompey , Rome. Main article: Early life and career of Julius Caesar.
Main article: Gallic Wars. Main article: Caesar's Civil War. Main article: Constitutional reforms of Julius Caesar.
See also: Assassination of Julius Caesar. See also: Divus Julius and Caesar's Comet. Main article: Gaius Julius Caesar name.
Main article: Julio-Claudian family tree. Main article: Caesarism. Main article: Cultural depictions of Julius Caesar.
Modern bronze statue of Julius Caesar, Rimini , Italy. There is some dispute over the year of Caesar's birth. In a 44 BC law it was stated that Caesar was born on 12 July, a date followed by most subsequent writers.
It was alleged in the third century AD that the Second Triumvirate had passed a law changing the date from 13 July to the day before, though evidence for this is lacking.
The Oxford Companion to the Year. Oxford University Press. The making of the Roman Army: from Republic to Empire. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
University of Chicago. Archived from the original on 30 May Life of Caesar. Project Gutenberg e-text. Archived from the original on 9 December The misconception that Julius Caesar himself was born by Caesarian section dates back at least to the 10th century Suda kappa Julius was not the first to bear the name, and in his time the procedure was only performed on dead women, while Caesar's mother Aurelia lived long after he was born.
Archived from the original on 22 March Plutarch Caesar 1. Velleius Paterculus Roman History Julius Caesar: Conqueror and Dictator.
The Rosen Publishing Group. Caesar de Bello Gallico. Cambridge Elementary Classics. Retrieved 26 December Lives of the Caesars.
Translated by J. In Flower, Harriet ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic 2 ed. Cambridge University Press.
The Classical Outlook. A History of the British Isles. Palgrave MacMillan. Retrieved 6 April Because of chronic internal rivalries, Gallic resistance was easily broken, though Vercingetorix's Great Rebellion of 52 bce had notable successes.
Retrieved 15 February Indeed, the Gallic cavalry was probably superior to the Roman, horseman for horseman.